Leadership based on nationalism in an transitional era

Posted by Admin on Thursday, 13 September 2007 | Makalah, Opini

By Lt. Gen.(retired) Sayidiman Suryohadiprojo


The Indonesian Concept of Nationalism is based on Pancasila. Pancasila is a set of principles which has been outlined by Ir. Soekarno or popularly known as Bung Karno in a conference of the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence on June 1, 1945 in Jakarta. Later the Committee agreed to declare Pancasila as the Ideology and Basic Foundation of the Republic of Indonesia.
Indonesian Nationalism should therefore be implemented based on the values of Pancasila, namely :

  1. Belief in Monotheism
  2. Humanity
  3. Unity of Indonesia
  4. Democracy
  5. Social Justice

Although the Indonesian Concept of Nationalism contains a religious principle (Belief in One God), it is not a theocratic concept.
Aiming for the best of the Nation, it is not anti foreign. Neither is it based on Individualism, although it respects the Individual in its relationship with Community.
As Bung Karno said, Indonesian Nationalism is a nationalism that grows in the garden of Internationalism , but an internationalism which is not dominated by a certain power. It is seeking its right place in an international community and world order based on freedom, lasting peace and social justice.
The Indonesian Nationalism acknowledges the close relationship between Continuity and Change.
The survival and lasting existence of Indonesia as a Nation is very much dependent on the implementation of Pancasila as the foundation of Indonesian Nationalism.


The implementation Pancasila to make it a reality as well as the preservation of the Republic of Indonesia as a Unitary State (NKRI) depends very much on Leadership based on nationalism or KBK (Kepemimpinan Berwawasan Kebangsaan).
KBK must be developed to achieve prosperity of the Indonesian Nation and the security of NKRI . In this respect, we should realize the fact that despite the dramatic progress of Mankind, especially in science and technology, the law of the jungle or the survival of the fittest is still dominating human life.

KBK could be developed by individuals as well as groups . In the case of individual leadership, the leader should be able to acquire the cooperation of other people to move together to achieve the national goals, because making Pancasila a “living reality” requires a strong and difficult struggle and needs a united effort.

If KBK is to be developed by a group , its members must agree to select one of them to be the leader to prevent weaknesses in the united effort caused by different opinions of the group members.

KBK as the national leadership must motivate the Indonesian people to achieve the mutual goals for making Pancasila a living reality in Indonesia. Therefore, the leader must gain the trust and respect of the people, and be able to convince them that he is leading them to a better life . He must inspire them to contribute their energy , thoughts and feelings for the mutual cause.
Confidence and respect will come only if KBK could demonstrate ability, competence and especially a strong commitment to the cause. A leader must live up to the values of Pancasila . In addition, a leader must not only be skilled in drafting concepts and making plans or theories, but must also show capability to carry out the concepts , plans and theories with a strong commitment.
Amid national and international conditions bristling with uncertainties, a leader must stand as a rock in a stormy ocean. As a morally and spiritually strong individual, KBK must inspire confidence and trust in his leadership. His strong convictions must make him to be decisive and accurate in making decisions, avoiding hasty but also too slow decisions . KBK must remain consistent but at the same time flexible enough to make changes if conditions require.

In addition, the attitude and behavior of the leader must serve as a good example for other people. A leader must assume a quality of strong discipline and self control , simple, acceptable under the prevailing condition , willing to listen and appreciating other’s opinions , always seeking to improve competence and knowledge that will encourage the people to follow his lead . However, as there are always people who refuse to follow a good example and comply with rules , KBK must have the ability to enforce the rules. It is important for KBK to always remain energetic to inspire optimism. .

In making decisions KBK must face the possibility of contradictions between principles and pragmatism . The safest way is to keep balance between the two standpoints, although it is not as easy as said . Not few people who always stick rigidly to principles without considering realities, causing harmful decisions. On the other hand many people are too pragmatic and sacrificing principles, which is also causing troubles . Indeed it is not easy to keep a healthy balance between principles and pragmatism.
KBK needs to show ability to manage an organization to achieve the goals of the cause with minimum sacrifice . It is important to determine the right targets , but no less important is that the targets are properly achieved.


KBK is carried out with the goal of making Pancasila a living reality in the Republic of Indonesia. KBK must therefore produce effective statesmanship.
Although Pancasila has been declared as the State Foundation and Weltanschauung of Indonesia since 1945, but the fact is that NKRI leaders have not done enough to make Pancasila a reality in the country. Until today Pancasila is no more than a slogan and no serious efforts are made to make it a reality. Too many Indonesians think that by giving fiery speeches they could create new realities. However, only acts could create new realities. Lack of the willingness to act is a weakness found among many Indonesians.
Statesmanship as a strong leadership, full of commitment and consistency is needed to make Pancasila and the National Concept a reality in the country. Many things in the country need changes . Radical change is even needed for certain things. Much resistance come from other nations with different interests in a strategically important Indonesia. KBK , therefore, must develop national and regional leaders highly motivated to make Pancasila a living reality.
A national leader needs to organize strong political support from the people in gradually creating changes in various aspects to make Pancasila a reality. He must have strong ambitions to make national achievements in all sectors of life.

One important thing that needs addressing is the aggressive attitude of the West, in particular the US, to make individualism prevail among Mankind . But that is contradictory to Pancasila which values individuals in relation with togetherness. This contradiction bears strongly on political , economic, social and cultural developments in the country. Statesmanship in Indonesia must seek to overcome the consequences of the contradiction. Also statesmanship must have a strong commitment to build physical strength to counter and neutralize all kinds of threats that is using force to achieve their objectives against the nation.


Statesmanship based on KBK seeks to create harmony in the relations between the center and the regions in line with the principles of Pancasila That also means relations between Java and outer regions
There have been issues about colonization of outer regions by Java to fan conflict between the central government and the outer regions. There were, indeed, cases of evidence of lack of harmony between the center and outer regions, but these issues were manipulated by foreign interests with the aim of controlling the country or part of it. Therefore, such negative issues should be eliminated.
Evidence of lack of harmony in the center-region relations was shown in domestic politics with a centralistic flavour under President Soekarno and President Soeharto. This way of governing should not be continued.
Center-region harmonization must be a manifestation of Bhinneka Tunggal Ika or Unity In Diversity, which is Indonesia’s slogan and closely related to Pancasila . Its implication in government is the need to have regional autonomy in the Unitary State. .
The implementation of such government policy requires capable political leaders in the center and the regions, to ensure that it benefits the regions as well as the center. Such condition will allow distribution of authority, which in one hand strengthens the Unitary State and on the other hand creates dynamic development in the regions. It will also prevent the possibility of separatism that seeks to manipulate dissatisfaction of the people in the regions. . A strong sense of togetherness between the regions and the center also depends on the capability of the central government to develop the Unitary State politically, economically and militarily.


Statesmanship based on KBK must be aware that culture is a very important factor in upholding Pancasila, to strengthem NKRI and its role in international relations.

Cultural development has a broad impact on all aspects of the nation’s life . It is a tragic mistake that since the country gained independence in 1945 the country’s leaders have failed to address this matter seriously .
Before the country’s independence many sociologists, including from Indonesia, doubted that the Unitary State of Indonesia could become a reality . They said Indonesians were united as they faced a common enemy, namely Dutch colonialism . They said, that as soon as the Dutch were driven away , the Unitary State would crumble into various ethnic groups, each with its own culture . Local languages, traditional customs and many other factors typical of the many regions would produce different attitudes , which could not easily be united, they said. However, we have proved them wrong as in fact the Republic of Indonesia as a unitary state has been established and remained in existence after 62 years. Nonetheless their opinion had valid ground, based on the fact that each region is a cultural entity in itself.
Therefore, KBK needs to seek a dynamic cultural development which strengthens the unity among the regions and the Unitary State and not a cultural development leading to separation of regions from the Unitary State.

The Indonesian culture consists of all the diverse regional cultures and the national culture. The regional cultures are products of the long life of the several ethnic groups in Indonesia, while the national culture came into existence after the establishment of the Indonesian Nation State . Cultures could also be divided into traditional and modern cultures. As the nation state was established only in 1945, the national culture is more characterized by modernity. While the regional cultures are traditional, but also have modern aspects. Both traditional and modern cultures must be developed to serve as an important support in upholding Pancasila.

Cultural development must be dynamic in the meaning that traditional and good cultural elements should be maintained and expanded, but there must also be new creation and the willingness to adopt positive aspects of foreign cultures .
This has been a cultural attitude long held by the people in Indonesia . It could be, among others, observed in the role of religion. The ancient people of the country were originally animists . Later Hinduism and Buddhism from India entered the country. The people saw many good things from both Hinduism and Buddhism. They then adopted them but they did not completely abandon what they already had or believed . Hinduism, therefore , grew not entirely as the one in India. Later came Islam and there was a similar process of adoption . This process enriched the national culture without loosing its original identity.

However, the arrival of the West in Indonesia created a new and different problem for the people in their process of cultural adoption. The West came not only with Christianity, but also with values of life diametrically in contradiction with Eastern values and Pancasila. After experiencing Enlightenment and Renaissance, the Western attitude of life and way of thinking was no longer living in harmony with Nature, but to dominate and subjugate Nature to create a more meaningful human existence. This attitude became the seed of Individualism and later gave rise to Liberalism and Materialism .
The role of rational thinking became very significant which resulted in a dynamic development of Science. Western people were willing to abandon old views which did not follow scientific thinking. They did not longer accept that the Earth is flat, because Science had proved that the Earth is round. With this new view of Earth and the attitude of conquering Nature, they were ready to travel far away from home, crossing oceans to other parts of the world, including Indonesia, to control the trading of spices which in that time was an important source of wealth . For that purpose they came to places to get the spices and subjugated the local people. And so started the era of colonialism in Indonesia and imperialism for Mankind.

The people of Indonesia enjoyed an easy life in a rich and generous environment, allowing them to live in prosperity without spending much energy . There was no problem when the had to face fellow Easterners as every body were used to living in harmony with nature and with each other. However when they came face to face with the aggressive and subjugating Westerners, it was difficult to adapt to the situation . The people were then doomed to long colonization and suffering. The colonial rule and suffering were ended only through a costly struggle to establish the independent and sovereign Republic of Indonesia, NKRI, in 1945.

In facing the West the Indonesian people had to assume a right attitude not to be hurt. They also had to take advantage of the new encounter, like what they did in their encounter with Hinduism, Buddhism and Islam . In other words, Indonesia should adopt the positive aspects of Western culture, such as mastery of science and technology.

Some people say that for that purpose Indonesia should abandon its original attitude of living in harmony with Nature and adopt the Western attitude. They say that only such a change in the cultural attitude will make it possible to acquire the positive aspects of Western culture, including the mastery of science and technology for achieving a prosperous life. However, abandoning harmony in life contradicts the values of Pancasila as the National Identity. Indonesia should therefore be able to acquire positive aspects of Western culture without abandoning harmony in life.
Japan has proved that they were able to become a nation mastering many positive aspects of Western culture without sacrificing Harmony . Indonesia should be able to do the same and not sacrifice Pancasila.

Learning from the Japanese experience, the best thing to do is to develop an energetic spirit in facing any challenges. With such a spirit Indonesians could achieve what the West have achieved and more. What the people should abandon is a be happy go lucky attitude, because of being spoilt by the easy and rich nature of the country. Indonesia should also reject values of Western culture that contradict the basic values of Pancasila. This change in cultural attitude must bring a different approach toward the meaning of National Identity.

This new attitude must influence the development of the various elements of culture such as arts in all manifestations (dances, singing , painting, etc) languages and literature , customs , sciences. This dynamic cultural attitude will make it possible to adapt to changing conditions without losing the national orientation. The end result is not only survival but also excellence.


Research must have an important place in the process of Statesmanship based on KBK.
Living in Harmony with Nature must not be simply interpreted as being statically accepting whatever is to come, but there must be endeavors to make Nature more perfect . If the West tends to subjugate Nature and exploit it as much as possible, and by doing so destroying Nature , Indonesians should utilize the potentials provided by Nature for the welfare of the people , but at the same time safeguard Nature in its long-lasting service to Mankind in ever better and more perfect conditions.

Nature and everything in it are full of Mystery yet to be uncovered by Man . Although science has advanced to much greater progress in the 21st century, Nature still holds many secrets not known to mankind, both in the Macro as well as Micro cosmos . Even human beings themselves have many secrets yet unknown to Man. If Indonesia is to achieve the welfare of its people , there is no other way than studying anything related to the Universe and everything within, including human beings.

Research is carried out in all disciplines of science that Indonesia should keep pace with, both in the Natural Sciences, Social Sciences and Humanities.
In addition to research, development activities that will turn out new technologies should be carried out to improve the life of Indonesians. Development should also find ways how to implement Pancasila in various aspects of life, including politics, economy, social condition, health and security.


Democracy is the basis of the political system according to Pancasila. Therefore, statesmanship based on KBK must develop democracy as a political system. Political developments must serve the interest of the people . This means that Democracy may not be developed for the interest of democracy itself. Pancasila does not only require political democracy but also economic democracy and social democracy.

Therefore, democracy as the political system of the Republic of Indonesia has similarities but also differences with democracy in countries based on Individualism and Liberalism One of the similarities is that democracy is the manifestation of the people’s sovereignty and interest . A significant difference is that countries based on Liberalism guarantee absolute freedom to individuals , whereas under Pancasila democracy, freedom is not absolute but the individual freedom must be in harmony with the community interest.. Democracy in Pancasila is guided by wisdom, which is a combination of the individual right to vote and the conclusion reached through deliberations for the interest of all.
The political system must produce an effective government. Therefore, the presidential system adopted by the NKRI must function well and effectively . The role of political parties may not merely serve the individual rights to establish a political party to serve one’s own interest. The political system must limit the number of political parties, so that they could function effectively to represent the general public.
Statesmanship based on KBK must guarantee that the national political system is also effective in the autonomous regions. For that purpose the political leadership at the center must have authority over the regions through the role of his party in the regions . Therefore, political parties should be large to represent the interests of the majority of the people.

Statesmanship based on KBK will see that the Law is effective and function well to guarantee justice for all people . Law authorities , which until now have not fully gained the confidence of the people, must undergo a consolidation and improvement of capabilities and mental conditions, to develop social trust.
Democracy will flourish with the support of a bureaucracy strong in patriotism, effective in its operations and having a positive mentality. Immediate reform of the bureaucracy, therefore, is a high necessity.


Statesmanship based on KBK seeks to develop an economy that is oriented toward the prosperity of the people . National and regional leaders must always seek to develop the rich potentials and wealth of the country for the welfare of the people.

Economic development must be for the welfare of the majority of the people, not just for a small group of people. Until today the economic development has not been directed to these goals, contrary to many government’s statements. That is a result of the economic policies in the past as well as at present, moreover external factors have a significant influence to this situation . In order to achieve a sustainable economic development, economic policies must be harmonized with environmental preservation.

High poverty rate indicates that the people are still far from an ideal condition of social justice as required by Pancasila. Wide spread poverty could become a source of public dissatisfaction that could lead to negative political developments, such as separatism and ideological opposition, including radicalism in Islam.

Public debates about whether the country has to adopt a market oriented economy as promoted by the neo-liberal economists or a guided economy with a strong government role, must be ended . Economic leaders must be able to see the benefits of the two views and use them for the interest of the people. A strong leadership, therefore, is needed to run the national economy . A dichotomy between the government and the private sector must be put to an end by increasing awareness that all are participants and having a role in Indonesia Incorporated.

Economic activities must increase the productivity of the nation. Production is to create high added value of all potentials – land, sea and other potentials as well as human potentials. The agricultural sector must grow utilizing vast fertile lands . The forestry sector must be properly managed to be more productive but forests must be preserved to allow them to keep their functions . The fishery sector must take advantage of the vast sea territory. Mining sector must exploit the rich mineral resources . The vast air space of the country must also be productive through developing the aviation industry..
This all necessitates development of the manufacturing industry to turn out goods for domestic consumption and for exports .

Production activities are handled by state-owned companies, private companies and cooperatives . State-owned companies must expand and managed effectively and apply business management principles, the way good private companies are managed . Therefore, there may no be a difference between state-owned companies and private companies. The difference lies only in ownership . Similarly cooperatives must be able to grow without government’s interference . All companies are profit oriented and, therefore , must be highly productive and able to compete in the international market.

Regional autonomy must not hamper the national economic development in general and a region must not become victim of a system left lagging behind other regions.

The economic leaders must create conditions that could attract both domestic and foreign investments . This is important to provide more jobs that will reduce poverty. Therefore, there must be consistency in regulations and stipulations and in the fight against any offences, corruption, etc to prevent a high cost economy. Investors must be given certainty in doing business .

Workers and employees are important factors to guarantee economic growth . There must be harmony in the relations between employers and workers or employees. Both sides must be aware of the importance of a healthy and strong company for their own sake and the importance of their participation in the achievement. Such harmony will necessitate a right wage system. There may not be a too wide gap between the salaries of management and workers. The workers and the management must be fully aware that they are not the only ones to suffer if the company collapses, but also the community and the nation as there will be greater unemployment problems.

Priority must be given to development of micro , small and medium enterprises (SMEs), which provide greater participation of the people. Close ties should be developed between large corporations and SMEs including cooperatives. SMEs could function as vendors and subcontractors, serving the need of large corporations such as in supplying spare parts .

A country with a population the fourth largest in the world should become the main market for Indonesian made products. Export is important but domestic industries will not likely to expand maximally without making the domestic market a captive market. It is not unlikely that the large Indonesian market is exploited by other countries to dispose of their goods. Economic activities are expected to bring about prosperity to the people and contribute to the state revenues to finance development of various sectors such as education, health, defense and research.


Pancasila is in essence serving the life of Human Beings . Making Pancasila a reality must be interpreted as creating better life for Human Beings. One of the important elements of improving the welfare of Human Beings is the ability and opportunity to pursue progress. Therefore, the human intelligence must continue to be strengthened to develop ability and create opportunities.

Education is to seek to transfer of knowledge, skills and habits, and value systems between people . Therefore, by definition education must be good in quality, as low quality education produce anti social people which is definitely not the purpose of Pancasila. Now more than ever, human life is influenced by progress in the development of science and technology. Only those people who master and are capable of keeping pace with advancing science and technology, can achieve high welfare.

Therefore, statesmanship based on KBK must develop leadership in the Center and Regions with a strong commitment to educational development. The Indonesian population of 250 million people provide an important national asset if the people have adequate skills , but they would be a burden and liability if they are not well educated . Education, therefore, must be made within the reach of the people in general and the people must have access to higher levels of education.

Failure to distribute good education to all people including those in the outer regions may trigger dissatisfaction. In addition , the regional potential in natural resources would never be properly developed with poor education in the regions. Such condition will open an opportunity for others, including foreign investors, to exploit the regional potentials for their own benefit. This also will spread seeds of dissatisfaction.

Leadership in the Center and Regions must be able to provide financial support for education. Compulsory education must be fully financed by the state. Now compulsory education is introduced for elementary and primary high schools , but later it should gradually include senior high schools. When the time has come, tuition is also to be abolished at higher learning institutions such as in Germany, Australia, etc. This all is designed to develop the mental and intellectual qualities of the nation . This, however, will require large funding as education is not cheap . Therefore, at least 20% of the State Budget must be appropriated for education. This will necessitate skillful national and regional leadership and management to ensure that the fund will be well spent.

Also serious addressing is needed to Islamic education, especially in the Madrasah school system . Well educated Muslims, capable in science and technology will not easily fall to radicalization.

Good education will provide Indonesia with high quality people spiritually, emotionally, intellectually and physically . Moreover it will make the Indonesian nation self reliant. In addition, the nation will achieve an equal position with all other nations in the world.


Good health must be well taken care for to ensure that Indonesians live normally and maintain a healthy thinking. The slogan of Men Sana In Corpore Sano (healthy thoughts in a healthy body) is still valid. The productivity of the nation in all aspects is very much dependent on its health condition .

Statesmanship based on KBK through the Central and Regional Governments musts seek to provide good health care services for lower income people . In addition the people must receive information about health care . They must be encouraged to and told how to maintain a healthy life and protect them from diseases. Public hospitals must seek to improve the quality of their services, at least the same with the services offered by hospitals in other countries . With a health insurance system covering all the people, the government will provide opportunity for all people to enjoy good health services. Not only rich people could enjoy good health services. This is important from the justice point of view that will help strengthen the national unity. In addition good health will make people more productive.


It is very clear that Pancasila wants harmony in social relations. It has already been said that Pancasila does not agree with individualism. Pancasila respects individual interest as much as it respects the public interest. Therefore, there should be always harmony in the relations between individuals and the community .

It must be made a reality in various aspects of the national life. Therefore, statesmanship based on KBK must be able to develop trust to maintain harmony in the relations between the center and the regions . Good relations between the center and the regions will also contribute to removing social distrust that still is obvious in some areas in the country . Social trust and mutual understanding between ethnic groups will reduce the possibility of conflicts . Social trust also serves as a strong binding agent among the elements of the community .

More important is harmony in the relations between religious people, which now often find themselves in conflict. All religions are against conflicts . They all seek peaceful life . However, conflicts often broke out as members of the religion tend to think that their religion is the only one that is right and foremost, especially when one thinks it is wrong if one of its members converts into another faith. Such communal conflict would badly hurt national development. Hopefully the legacy of gotong royong marked by mutual assistance, which has been badly dented by strong effects of individualism and liberalism, will prevail again in the country.


The world is still not yet free from people who never are satisfied with what have been achieved through peaceful and friendly ways. They are ready to sacrifice peace and use force to achieve their goals.

It is a fact that realization of a community based on Pancasila that brings about prosperity and justice for the people is not enough to stop and eliminate criminal offences . Though not many in number , there are still people with evil things in minds and they could be stopped only with physical action.

Statesmanship based on KBK must be backed up with a national security system that could be relied uponm in particular by the State Police (POLRI)), Indonesian National Military (TNI) and the National Intelligence Agency (BIN) . Other agencies are also needed to cope with various threats such as drug abuses , money counterfeiting and human trade . However, Polri, TNI and BIN play the most important role.

The role of the national intelligence agency is vital for the government and the House of Representatives in determining policies , both for the people’s welfare and security. The role of BIN is especially important in facing separatism, terrorism and threats from foreign ideologies. BIN, therefore must be headed by one , who is an expert and knowledgeable about intelligence . Sufficient fund is certainly needed to ensure that the agency could work effectively.
We must realize that even in time of peace , nations are still engaged in struggles between intelligence services.
Since the 20th century , which is marked with rapid advances in science and technology, national security has covered a broader scope. There is no more clear line to distinguish security problems caused by internal affairs from one caused by foreign aggressions. Flexibility is needed in using either one of the security agencies in handling certain security problems. It will not be wise to say that internal security is merely a police affair and that TNI is needed only for the defense of the country to face possible attacks from outside. Acting on such an inflexible principle will mean tying ourselves and hampering us from using our strength maximally to take the necessary steps. Especially in facing grey areas, such as rebellions, the government must decide how to overcome it effectively , whether to rely only on Polri or whether TNI should be involved. The National Security Council (DKN), therefore, should function effectively as a super general staff assisting the President in making decisions on national security. An effective DKN will help the president to take the right decisions on what act is to be taken when facing threats to national security.
In order to maintain public order and domestic security Polri should be effective . Polri should be effective in dealing with a host of domestic problems, like controlling traffic order, coping with ordinary crimes, terrorism and organized crime . To a certain extent police could be relied on to handle rebellions , but when it grows to become a threat to the national unity , TNI should be called on to support police.

TNI is needed in particular to face aggression from outside , starting with conventional operations and keeping the aggressors from entering into the Indonesian territory. Therefore, since Indonesia is a large archipelago, TNI must constitute a harmonious unity between the Army, Navy and Air Force . The capability of keeping the aggressors outside the Indonesian territory is to prevent war damage and destruction in the country. However, the aggressor may have superior capabilities, in that case conventional operations are not sufficient to resist them . It is wrong to assume that superiority of aggressors in conventional battles will mean we lose the war . What determines the result of a war is the will to resist . Losing conventional battles does not necessarily mean losing the war.

Therefore, statesmanship based on KBK must prepare TNI and the people to resume war with non conventional resistance including territorial warfare with guerilla as its main tactics. The ability to launch non conventional operations will also develop the ability to conduct anti guerilla warfare, important for facing rebellions and separatisms, which generally resort to guerilla tactics in the country . TNI must has the capability to render a powerful striking force to give a deterrent effect .

The effectiveness of Polri and TNI is determined by various factors. Most determinant are leadership, the quality of personnel to carry out any assignments , the quality of equipment, education and training to keep good quality , and guarantee of the welfare of the personnel and morality. TNI and Polri must be able to carry out intelligence functuions to support the national intelligence efforts coordinated by BIN, and for the interest of the Polri and TNI themselves. What is more important is that Polri and TNI must always remain close to the people to ensure that they continue to have their support. Therefore, for TNI in particular, the territorial function must be developed to create close relations with the people. The relations could be strengthened by drafting people into the military services, making civilians part of TNI.

Creation of an effective security apparatuses is important to develop a deterrent power of the nation to ward off any threat to the national security . It will facilitate a peaceful national development to improve the nation’s welfare..


International relations are fostered on the obligation of the nation to Build The World Anew , in line with the principles of Pancasila. In addition, International Relations are maintained for the national interests. including to strengthen the national deterrence. International conditions most suitable to the national interests is as it is outlined in the preamble of the 1945 Constitution, that is a situation in which humanity and justice with world order , freedom, lasting peace and social justice, are held high. This is the international condition that Indonesia wants to create with Pancasila.
It is not easy to make it a reality while facing those having different interests, especially those seeking to launch neo-colonialism and neo-imperialism by gaining world hegemony.

Statesmanship based on KBK will be interested in seeking reform in the structure of the United Nations . The United Nations has remained to serve more as a tool for countries winning the World War 2 , neglecting the great changes in the world after the end of colonization and emergence of nations in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Despite the strong resistance we must continue to seek reform in the United Nations.

Meanwhile, international relations with neighboring countries in ASEAN must be fostered. Good conditions of ASEAN will contribute to our efforts to bring Pancasila into reality in Indonesia and prevent any threat to the state integrity .
No less important is maintaining good relations with all developing nations, to combine force in coping with conflicting interests with advanced and rich countries.
Indonesia needs to maintain close ties with other Muslim countries in the Islamic Conference Organization (ICO) . Apart from seeking to bring progress among its member countries the organization could be used to contain radicalism, as radicalism will only hurt the interest of Islam.
We take part in seeking to unite nations in East Asia as, apart from being important for the world peace, it will also contribute to expanding Indonesian economic ties especially with China, Japan and Korea.
Maintaining good relations with the United States is most important but also most difficult for Indonesia. There are many aspects from the United States that Indonesia could not accept, such as individualism and liberalism .We reject U.S. aggressive policy in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, Indonesia could not easily dismiss , let alone antagonize the only superpower in the world. We have to continue to be cautious in maintaining relations with the world economic power and technology power house
The success in expanding international relations and cooperation is very much determined by the physical, mental and moral strength that would be radiated by Indonesia, both in the prosperity and security aspects. A weak and less respected Indonesia will fall prey to other nations amid a world still controlled by the law of the jungle where only the fittest will survive .


Various aspects have been outlined briefly about Leadership Based on Nationalism. Most important of all is to find the right person or persons that fit the position This is not easy . There are always persons who claim to be capable but later prove far from the expectations. On the other hand, the ones that are truly capable fail to surface for various reasons.
Nevertheless it seems that the dynamic nature of Indonesia since the 20th century, with all the suffering, destruction and deaths, tend to lead to big changes in the Indonesian land. May God Almighty bless us with His generosity in our struggle to achieve our goals.

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